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I am writing to ask for your help to support the medical treatment of my younger brother Pierre Roring. He is suffering from a life threatening cancer on his neck. The tumor is very big and he cannot eat solid food.

We are trying to raise fund through gofundme for him so that we could send him to a hospital that has got modern equipment to treat cancer patients in a big city in Indonesia. Here is the link for donations:
https://gofund.me/f46d3cd4
We also ask for your prayer to God to help and heal Pierre in his fight against cancer. You could also help by sharing this message to your friends and other people.
Thank you for your donation and message of supports.
Best Wishes,
Charles Roring

## Birding, Snorkeling, and Wildlife Watching Journals from Tropical Rainforest of West Papua and other regions in Indonesia

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## Saturday, June 20, 2009

### Propeller Pitch Ratio

Before we proceed to the mean pitch ratio calculation of a propeller, we must know, first, the definition of the terminology. Pitch is the distance a propeller travels along an x axis after one revolution. An ideal pitch can be seen if we imagine the propeller as a cork screw that moves forward through a solid material. So, the speed of the cork screw is V = pitch x revolution. But in reality a ship's propeller always works or moves through sea or fresh water. So, such principle of moving through solid material cannot be applied in the design of marine screw propeller.

Source: Basic Principles of Ship Propulsion
When a propeller revolves in the water, the fluid which is the sea water will be accelerated afterward. This happens because the water yields. Technically, ship designers or naval architects call this phenomenon as slip. Slip decreases the speed of a propeller. We will discuss about propeller slip in another article.
Back to the propeller pitch ratio, before calculating this parameter, a propeller designer must determine the tip pitch ratio of the designed propeller at the service speed of the designed ship. The value of propeller pitch-diameter ratio (P/D) can be obtained from Bp- diagram. Bp is influenced by: the revolution of the engine at an optimum condition favorable for the propeller operation N; the delivered horse power PD; and speed of advance VA. Such parameters are also needed in the calculation of with the addition of another parameter, i.e. D which is the diameter of the propeller obtained from stern detail of the designed ship. The followings are the formulas for Bp and

and
After calculating the values of Bp and , the next step is reading them on the Bp- diagram. The diagram which I usually use is propeller Troost / Wageningen B-series. An example of the diagram is presented below:

Source of the figure: Marine Propellers and Propulsion written by John Charlton
From the above diagram, we can get the values of open water efficiency 0 and the pitch diameter ratio P/D of the propeller.
For the same delivered power and speed of ship, if we increase the engine revolution, the diameter and the pitch will be lower. To high pitch and diameter of propeller will cause the main engine to operate in over-loading condition. After all the principal dimensions of the ship's propeller have been determined or calculated, the next step which a propeller designer or naval architect has to perform is calculating the strength of the propeller and drawing the propeller. by Charles Roring in Manokwari of West Papua Indonesia.